What components does a photovoltaic system consist of and how does it work?

A photovoltaic system, also known as a solar system, is an energy system that converts sunlight into electricity. This is the so-called photovoltaic effect or PV effect. It consists of various components: solar panels, inverter, controller, rechargeable battery, electricity meter, wiring and other electrical accessories. Depending on whether it is autonomous, mains or combined, the solar system turns some of the components on or off, but the basic operating principles are the same.